Heya, I noticed a few days ago that i have the same problem, while it worked fine before. My android didn't get any updates, unlike yours. However there's a difference, Solus doesn't display MTP errors anymore, but the URL which is displayed in the error starts with UDI. Does it do the same on your side ? Maybe there's something to be investigated here ? It used to be MTP, that I'm sure of.
To illustrate I'll paste my error here :
udi=/org/kde/solid/udev/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:01.3/0000:02:00.0/usb1/1-2/ doesn't exist
Edited for better clarity